Compulsive Behavior Side Effects?

More often than not we hear or read about me discussing taking personal responsibility and being personally held accountable for our words and actions. This post won’t be any different. I found it humorous that I was sent the link to the below information and shortly after reading it I heard a damn commercial for the same thing. Odd what we hear on the radio @ 02:30 am while driving my happy ass to work. Anyone, I would assume, who watches television or listens to the radio has seen or heard at least one Ambilify commercial. True or not? Having a son who suffers from mild bipolar disorder we have been bombarded with samples and prescription answers which will somehow magically transform behavior. I tell you from my personal experience, we don’t use my son for a testing ground so big pharmaceuticals can make their billions at the cost of my son’s mental well-being. So, when I saw this bullshit about the lawsuit towards the makers of Ambilify I merely smiled to myself because we all know there is not one single perfect medication with no side effects. While my son has never taken Ambilify, we did research it extensively, just as we have done with many others.

But why are we here right now? But why did I choose to write about it right now? It’s simple, this is another example of people who cannot be responsible for their own actions. It’s about people who blame someone else for their own behavior because they acted without self control. It’s because people want the quick fix. It’s about people who choose to not read the small print or they choose to ignore the small print. Yes, I find this lawsuit as being fucking stupid because people made bad choices but don’t want to take responsibility for their own decisions. But then we know in our society nobody is forced to be held accountable, it’s always somebody else at fault. Bullshit! If we fuck up we just sue someone because we can profit from our lack of responsibility. Or have we forgot that coffee from a fast food joint is extremely hot and will burn the fuck out out your crotch if you spill it? People are dumbasses. Let this be yet just one more example.

The following information was originally found here and provided by a leading contributor to The Scorpion Army. I don’t have any express or otherwise permissions to copy this story from the above linked website or to use it on my blog as part of a post which includes my personal opinion. Hopefully they understand I do not support the lawsuit efforts but do not hold the above website responsible for posting this story. In the end, if they wish that I remove it in part or completely it will happen swiftly and immediately. The two pictures were borrowed from the internet using Google. Remember, I neither gain or loose anything by sharing the following information, it’s just being shared because I found it truly interesting.

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Abilify has been linked to compulsive behavior side effects, such as pathological gambling, binge eating and hypersexuality. These behaviors are thought to be triggered by the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin.

One of the most popular treatments for a variety of mental disorders like depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder,  makes billions for Bristol-Myers Squibb and the Otsuka Pharmaceutical Company. It was the top-selling drug in the U.S. in 2013 with sales of over $6.4 billion. The drug works by either increasing or decreasing dopamine or serotonin in the brain when there is an imbalance, and this makes it useful for a variety of approved and unapproved uses.

However, the drug is also linked to disturbing compulsive behavior side effects that can wreak havoc on the lives of patients and their families.

Among these side effects, compulsive or pathological gambling can be financially crippling, and it can destroy lives. People in the grip of compulsive behaviors will do anything they can to continue the chosen activity, even if it means ignoring the rest of their lives and withdrawing from friends and family.

This side effect in particular may lead to lawsuits against Bristol-Myers and Otsuka America, claiming the companies did not properly warn patients and doctors of this serious side effect.

In addition, reports of other side effects include compulsive eating, shopping and even sex addiction.

How Abilify Causes Compulsive Behavior

While doctors aren’t exactly sure how Abilify (aripiprazole) works, they believe it acts on receptors in the brain for chemicals that regulate mood and behavior. These chemicals are neurotransmitters called dopamine and serotonin.

handful of medications

When the dopamine system is stimulated in response to a particular activity, people will feel a high from it or a feeling of pleasure. This reward system normally ensures that we continue to eat and do other things we need to do to survive. In people with mental disorders, these systems are stimulated excessively, or not enough.

Researchers think Abilify may over-stimulate dopamine reward receptors in the brain – called dopamine 3 (D3) receptors – and trigger compulsive behavior.

Compulsive Gambling

Several case studies focused on a connection between aripiprazole and compulsive behavior, also called pathological behavior, especially in the case of gambling. One French study published in 2013 by Gaboriau, et al., examined several people who checked into a clinic because of their compulsive gambling behaviors. Study authors looked at eight individuals who took Abilify as part of ongoing medical treatment. Researchers found the drug caused seven of the eight patients to lose control of their gambling habits.

After discontinuing the drug or greatly reducing the dose, patients regained control of their compulsive behaviors, researchers wrote.

Another 2011 case study by Cohen, et al. found similar results in patients treated for schizophrenia. No patients in this study had a history of pathological gambling. Soon after taking the drug, they began gambling uncontrollably.

Similarly, a 2011 British study conducted by the National Problem Gambling Clinic found a relationship between Abilify and the drive to gamble in some patients. Doctors described one case in which a patient took the antipsychotic and “was preoccupied with thoughts of gambling and his gambling activity became both impulsive and involved extensive planning in obtaining funds to gamble, including the use of crime.”

Another patient said gambling became “a reason to live” after he took the drug.

In all cases, gambling problems resolved after discontinuing Abilify and switching to another drug.

Gabapentin (Neurontin) Addiction

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When I was originally diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy I was prescribed Gabapentin which was still a newish drug to treat the nerve pain in my feet. Within weeks myself and my family really started noticing changes in me we didn’t like. Changes like heavy mood swings, feeling like the walking dead, nauseous always, and much more. I discussed this with my doctor and I was told my body has to get used to the very potent medication and I needed to give it time. After about 6 months I did get used to it I guess you could say, it became a crutch to say the very least. At about that same six month period is when I began using VA medical facilities and I had yet another discussion with another doctor who couldn’t prescribe Gabapentin because the VA didn’t offer it so I was switched to Lyrica. After trying it out for a few months I made the choice to stop taking either of the medications because to me the extreme pain was better than the way on felt taking them. Those of you out there with diabetic
peripheral neuropathy and the associated pain know what it’s like and how its a game changer in one’s overall lifestyle. It’s been 15 months almost to the day since I stopped taking them and I can still say the pain is still better than the side effects. In my own experience, neither worked well for me and the pain I felt while taking the either drug was reduced very little. After some digging I found an article my mother forwarded to me a couple of years back because I was talking with another family member who was recently prescribed Gabapentin and was telling me how it really wasn’t working out for her either. It all got me thinking this morning that I wanted to share with y’all what was once shared with me. I copied and pasted the article but you can find a link to it at the very bottom. Please feel free to share more information or your personal stories in the comments.

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When Neurontin was the new drug on the block, physicians believed that they had found a real breakthrough drug to help patients with all kinds of nerve pain.  The drug had fewer side effects and drug interactions than current ones on the market and was classified as non-addictive, which meant you did not have to keep extensive records on it every time you prescribed it.[i] Soon Neurontin was generating over $4 billion a year in sales.[ii]

Then the trouble began.  A whistle-blower from the drug’s manufacturer claimed the company was spinning data on the drug’s effectiveness and using illegal means to promote its off-label uses among physicians.  When the dust settled from civil and criminal lawsuits, Pfizer paid out $572 million to claimants.[iii]  But not to worry. As soon as Neurontin became a cheap drug available generically, Pfizer marketed a close cousin of it named Lyrica, which today generates $3 billion a year in sales.[iv]

What is Gabapentin?

Gabapentin is an analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that slows down the activity of nerve cells in the brain. This means that gabapentin has a similar structure and is made up of similar chemicals as GABA, although its effect on the body is not the same. The scientists who developed gabapentin were deliberately trying to mimic GABA.

Gabapentin does not convert into GABA, does not inhibit it, does not alter the uptake of dopamine, and does not interact with GABA receptor cells.[v]  How gabapentin works and how it relieves pain and suppresses seizures is unknown.  One theory is that it increases the level of GABA by increasing the activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase, an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of GABA.[vi]

The chemical name for gabapentin is 2-[1-(aminomethyl) cyclohexyl]acetic acid and its molecule looks like this:

Gabapentin is not a Controlled Substance, that is, one that the United States federal government classifies as having potential for addiction and regulates under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act of 1970. However, gabapentin shares characteristics of addictive drugs in that it produces a withdrawal syndrome and certain psychoactive effects.  Its cousin drug, pregabalin, is a Schedule V Controlled Substance.

What are the Medical Uses of Gabapentin?

The United States Food and Drug Administration approved Neurontin for the treatment of seizures in adults and children, especially as a supplemental drug used for the same purpose. In 2002, the FDA approved it for treatment for pain from shingles. Horizant and Gralise are extended release versions of gabapentin that were approved for shingles pain in 2012.[vii] Gabapentin was also approved for restless leg syndrome in 2011.[viii]

When gabapentin was first introduced, doctors were excited about it because it had few side effects and drug interactions compared to competing remedies, and because it was not metabolized through the liver but rather excreted through the kidneys.[ix]  Physicians began to prescribe it off-label for various conditions, including hot flashes during menopause, pain from fibromyalgia, bi-polar disorder, pain after polio, neuropathic pain, complex regional pain syndrome, trigeminal neuralgia, migraines, alcohol and drug withdrawal seizures, and diabetic neuropathy.[x] Later it was proven that the manufacturers of this drug had exaggerated claims about its effectiveness for various conditions.[xi]  Pregabalin, commonly sold as Lyrica, is a newer drug now prescribed for nerve pain, epilepsy and fibromyalgia, and it has largely replaced gabapentin.[xii]

The usual dose for people over 12 years old who have epilepsy is 300mg three times a day. This can be increased to 1800mg a day. Doctors prescribe the drug to children with epilepsy based on their body weights.[xiii]

For post-herpetic neuralgia (shingles), the dose is the same as for epilepsy. For adults with restless leg syndrome, the dose is 600mg taken at five o’clock in the evening.[xiv]

Dosages for people with kidney problems may be different than these.[xv]

If you break a gabapentin tablet in order to take just half, you need to use the rest of the pill as your next dosage or else discard it.[xvi]

One unusual aspect of gabapentin is that its bioavailability decreases with the dose.  For example, if you take 900mg, 60% is available to your body, but if you take 4800mg, that drops to only 27%.[xvii]

What are the Side Effects of Gabapentin?

The most common side effects of gabapentin are drowsiness, unsteadiness, sleepiness, loss of coordination, clumsiness, vision changes, and dry mouth.[xviii]  Some people report the following rare side effects:  edema, weight gain, swollen hands and feet, headaches, diarrhea, trouble thinking, abnormal thoughts, suicidal thoughts, fever, ataxia, diplopia, flu symptoms, shortness of breath, chest pain, mouth sores, chills, nausea, coughing, tremor, and other cold symptoms.

If you experience certain symptoms, you should call your doctor immediately because they can be a sign of a serious health condition. These can be black tarry stools, dark urine, tiredness, chest pain, suicidal mood, swollen glands, unusual bruising, rashes, or signs of an infection such as fever, cough and sore throat.[xix]

Children react to gabapentin differently than adults.  They may experience behavioral changes, moodiness, hyperactivity, overly emotional states, and restlessness.[xx]

What Drugs Interact with Gabapentin?

In general, you should not take gabapentin products with medicines that slow down the central nervous system and make you drowsy. These may be anti-histamines, narcotic painkillers, sleeping pills, muscle relaxants, anti-anxiety medications, and drugs for depression and seizures.[xxi] Gabapentin products will react with drugs used during surgeries, even dental procedures.[xxii] Do not take gabapentin products with morphine (Kadian, MS Contin), naproxen (Aleve) or hydrocodone (Lortab, Vicodin).[xxiii]

Drugs containing gabapentin will interact with ketorolac, aluminum carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, dihydroxyaluminum amino acetate, dihydroxyaluminum sodium carbonate, ginkgo, magaldrate, magnesium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium trislicate, and morphine sulfate liposome. If you combine gabapentin with tobacco and alcohol and then take certain other drugs, you may cause an unpleasant or difficult reaction.[xxiv]

If you take any common antacids like Maalox and Di-Gel that contain aluminum or magnesium, you need to wait two hours before taking gabapentin.[xxv]

Which People Should not Take Gabapentin?

Gabapentin products have not been determined safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or children, even though doctors sometimes prescribe it for children with epilepsy.  People with histories of depression, mood or mental disorders, and kidney diseases usually do not take gabapentin because it can make these conditions worse.[xxvi]  These drugs are used with caution for people with liver or heart diseases.[xxvii]

What Lawsuits Have Ensued Over Gabapentin?

At first the United States Food and Drug Administration approved Neurontin for only for epilepsy but by the year 2000, 78% of prescriptions that doctors wrote for Neurontin were for conditions other than seizure disorders. The new drug was widely prescribed “off label” for more than a dozen conditions, including fibromyalgia, nerve pain, migraines, menopausal symptoms, bipolar disorder, and even attention deficit disorder in children.[xxviii] Between 2000 and 2004, Neurontin was generating $1 to $4 billion in sales a year for its manufacturers, which were first Warner-Lambert and later Pfizer drug companies.[xxix]

In 2002, Dr. David Franklin, an employee of Warner-Lambert, went to authorities to report that his company was promoting Neurontin for uses not approved by the FDA. While it is not illegal for doctors to prescribe drugs for unapproved uses, it is illegal for a drug company to advertise and promote them for unapproved uses. [xxx] Dr. Franklin testified that Warner-Lambert paid to doctors to present themselves as authors of studies written by non-doctors employed by the company. He said that the company also paid doctors to speak to other doctors about the off-label uses of Neurontin, and offered physicians expensive retreats and dinners at expensive restaurants to promote the drug.[xxxi]

As criminal and civil lawsuits were filed against the company, more negative information came out. Pfizer had apparently delayed or suppressed publication of studies that were negative or neutral about Neurontin, and exaggerated any positive claims. For example, three double-blind studies showed that Neurontin did not improve the symptoms of bipolar patients any better than sugar pills, but the company manipulated the studies and how symptoms were defined in evaluating the success of Neurontin. Of the 12 studies of the drug’s effect on migraine headaches, two negative ones went unpublished, and some of the positive studies involved only patients who had taken 2400mg or more of the drug.[xxxii] In other studies, patients could easily figure out that they were not in the placebo group, and ordinarily this would have meant that the study could not be published. Company spokespeople denied all the charges, but Pfizer ended up paying out $430 million in claims to states enrolled in the Medicaid program.[xxxiii] In 2011, Judge Patti Saris of the U.S. District Court in Boston ordered Pfizer to pay Kaiser Health $142.1 million for duping the company into prescribing Neurontin for migraines and bipolar disorder.[xxxiv]

In 2004, gabapentin became available as a cheap generic drug,[xxxv] which drastically reduced its value as a money-maker for Pfizer. Pfizer introduced a similar but more potent drug called Lyrica, which was approved by the FDA in December 2004. Lyrica was approved for seizure disorders and pain from fibromyalgia, but it is now prescribed for many other conditions “off-label,” especially all kinds of chronic pain. Today Lyrica ranks 19th among all prescription drugs, and generates more than $3 billion a year for Pfizer.[xxxvi]

What are the Risks of Taking Gabapentin?

Gabapentin doubles the risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors, but the risk is still low.  In one study of 27,863 patients on Neurontin and 16,029 on a placebo, 0.43% of the ones on the real drug became suicidal compared to 0.24% on the sugar pill.[xxxvii]

Gabapentin has some potential for abuse because it has psychoactive effects.   Once you have been on it for a while, you may experience a difficult withdrawal syndrome when you try to stop taking it.

Gabapentin causes drowsiness and incoordination, which means that you are at an increased risk for accidents, and probably should not drive when you take this medication.[xxxviii]

Gabapentin increases the risk for sudden death after seizures in patients who have epilepsy.  It can cause certain dangerous and sometimes even fatal reactions. Symptoms of this condition can be fever, rash, painful lymph glands in the neck and armpit, unusual bleeding, and yellow eyes and skin.[xxxix] Both of these reactions are extremely rare.

Gabapentin may slightly increase your risk for cancer.[xl]

Does Gabapentin Show up on Urine Tests?

Gabapentin has a half-life of about five to seven hours, which means it should completely clear the body within 38 hours. Standard urine tests do not test for it because it is not a controlled substance.

What is a Gabapentin Overdose?

Symptoms of a gabapentin overdose may be appearing drunk and disoriented, with slurred speech and double vision.[xli]  Such overdoses are very rare.

What is Gabapentin Withdrawal or Discontinuation Syndrome?

When gabapentin was first introduced, scientists believed that it could not cause a withdrawal syndrome.  Since that time, there have been many case studies of people who experienced such difficult symptoms when they tried to stop using the drug that many had to go back on it.  For example, one 81 year old woman with bipolar disorder took Neurontin for five years, and developed severe cold symptoms when she stopped. On the tenth day after stopping Neurontin in a gradual way, she had terrible chest pain, hypertension, and mental changes that were difficult to manage. She was back to normal within one day of taking the drug again.[xlii]

In another case study, a 53-year-old woman vomited a black substance like coffee grounds and developed abdominal pain and black stools after stopping gabapentin.  By days four and five, she developed restlessness, anxiety, agitation, disorientation, confusion, headaches, and extreme sensitivity to light.  When her doctor administered gabapentin again, she was calm and normal within a day.[xliii] Another such study found that a 41-year-old male developed insomnia, headaches, heart palpitations, and excessive sweating after stopping Neurontin, but his symptoms went away when he went back on it.[xliv]

It has now been proven that gabapentin can build up in the body and cause a severe withdrawal syndrome similar to the ones for benzodiazepines and alcohol. The syndrome can last for weeks and even months, depending on the levels you took the drug and for how long you took it.  Symptoms are agitation, confusion, disorientation, sensitivity to light, headaches, heart palpitations, and hypertension, chest pain.  If you were taking gabapentin for epilepsy, your seizures will probably come back.  Some people develop seizures during withdrawal even if they never had one before.[xlv]

What is Gabapentin Addiction?

In theory, gabapentin should not be addictive because it has no affinity for the nerve receptors associated with addictions to marijuana, benzodiazepines or opiates.  It was marketed as non-addictive, but post-marketing studies showed that some people were abusing it.  In the early 2000s, the drug was being sold to thousands of people with sales were over a billion dollars a year.  Some of these patients were asking their doctors to increase their amounts (self-escalation) as they developed physical dependencies on Neurontin.  When they tried to quit, they entered a withdrawal syndrome that caused them to go back to the drug.  The new conclusion about gabapentin, as one expert put it, “The dependence and abuse potential for gabapentin has not been evaluated in human studies.”[xlvi]

The United States Drug Enforcement Agency does not list gabapentin as a drug of concern, even though it is being sold on the Internet illegally. Its street name is “morontin” because it makes you “dopey.”

What Treatments are Available for Gabapentin Addiction?

Because the withdrawal syndrome for this drug can produce unpleasant and even dangerous symptoms, you need to consult your doctor or an addiction specialist at a drug rehabilitation clinic about how you can safely stop taking the drug. The usual method is to wean a patient from the drug by gradually lowering the dosage, but this does not always prevent the withdrawal syndrome.[xlvii]  If you have tried unsuccessfully to quit taking gabapentin, you should seek professional help.

The state-of-the-art treatment for drug addiction is to enter a residential treatment center where your withdrawal can be done under medical supervision.  If you are addicted to other drugs or alcohol as well as gabapentin, your detoxification process will become even more complicated.

Once you have completed detoxification and your body is completely clear of drugs, you need to remain at the center for a few weeks or more so that you can undergo therapy to learn to live a drug-free life.  You will work one-on-one with a therapist who can help you with any psychological problems you may have that contribute to your drug abuse.  You may learn how to deal stress through non-pharmaceutical means such as running or other sports, yoga, meditation, journaling and so forth.  You may have classes in the chemistry of drugs and why they can get such a hold on people’s lives.  You will learn how to avoid relapsing into drug abuse or alcoholism, even if you have a genetic tendency or long family history of such problems.  Most drug rehab programs offer activities that are fun to do as well as ways of self-exploration, such as social gatherings, sightseeing, outdoor sports, and participating in art, drama and music. Once you return home, you usually remain in support meetings in your community and in individual and family counseling to help you stay on track.

How Can I Tell if I am Addicted to Gabapentin?

If you can answer yes to any of these questions, you may want to consider talking to your family physician or an addiction specialist at a residential treatment center about your concerns with gabapentin.

Are you taking gabapentin without a doctor’s prescription? Do you ask your doctor to keep increasing your dose?Do you buy gabapentin from the Internet or other illegal sources? Do you experience withdrawal symptoms when you stop taking gabapentin? Have you tried to quit taking gabapentin on your own but failed? Do you consider yourself to be someone who abuses drugs or alcohol?Do you use gabapentin along with alcohol or other drugs as a way of treating emotional pain? Are you taking gabapentin even though you experience unpleasant side effects and even though you are unsure if it is effective for you? If money were no object, would you enter an intense program to help you deal with drug problems? Do your friends or family members criticize you because of your drug abuse? Do you feel guilty about how you use drugs? Are you trying to cut down on your use of gabapentin or other drugs?

[i]  Tran, K. T., Hranicky, D., Lark, T., & Jacob, N. J. (2005). Gabapentin withdrawal syndrome in the presence of a taper. Bipolar Disorders, 7(3), 302-304.

[ii] Peterson, Melody. “Whistle-Blower Says Marketers Broke the Rules To Push a Drug,” The New York Times, March 14, 2002; and Saul, Stephanie, “Experts Conclude Pfizer Manipulated Studies,” the New York Times, October 8, 2008.

[iii] “Pfizer Told to Pay $142.1 Million Over Marketing of Epilepsy Drug,” New York Times, January 28, 2011.

[iv] “U.S. Pharmaceutical Sales  2013,” The United States Food and Drug Administration, see http://www.drugs.com/stats/top100/2013/q1/sales

[v] “Neurontin,” the RX List, see http://www.rxlist.com/neurontin-drug.htm

[vi] Hellwig, T., Hammerquist, R., & Termaat, J. (2010). Withdrawal symptoms after gabapentin discontinuation. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 67(11), 910-912.

[vii] See articles on FDA approvals and clinical trials of Gabapentin at Center Watch, http://www.centerwatch.com/

[viii] “Neurontin (Gabapentin),” The Staff of the Mayo Clinic, see http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/drug-information/DR600709

[ix] Tran, K. T., Hranicky, D., Lark, T., & Jacob, N. J. (2005). Gabapentin withdrawal syndrome in the presence of a taper. Bipolar Disorders, 7(3), 302-304.

[x] Mack, Alicia (Ph Pharm). Examination of the Off Label Uses of Gabapentin, The Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy,  see http://www.amcp.org/data/jmcp/Contemporary%20Subject-559-568.pdf

[xi] Peterson, Melody. “Whistle-Blower Says Marketers Broke the Rules To Push a Drug,” The New York Times, March 14, 2002; and Saul, Stephanie, “Experts Conclude Pfizer Manipulated Studies,” the New York Times, October 8, 2008.

[xii] “Neurontin (Gabapentin),” The Staff of the Mayo Clinic, see http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/drug-information/DR600709

[xiii] “Gabapentin,” Medline, Information from the National Institutes of Health, see http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a694007.html

[xiv] Ibid, see also “Neurontin,” the RX List, see http://www.rxlist.com/neurontin-drug.htm

[xv] Ibid.

[xvi] “Neurontin,” the RX List, see http://www.rxlist.com/neurontin-drug.htm

[xvii] “Gabapentin,” Medline, Information from the National Institutes of Health, see http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a694007.html

[xviii] “Neurontin (Gabapentin),” The Staff of the Mayo Clinic, see http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/drug-information/DR600709. See also “Neurontin,” the RX List, see http://www.rxlist.com/neurontin-drug.htm

[xix] “Neurontin,” the RX List, see http://www.rxlist.com/neurontin-drug.htm

[xx] “Neurontin (Gabapentin),” The Staff of the Mayo Clinic, see http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/drug-information/DR600709

[xxi] “Gabapentin,” Official Information from the United States Food and Drug Administration, Drugs.com, see http://www.drugs.com/gabapentin.html

[xxii] “Gabapentin,” Medline, Information from the National Institutes of Health, see http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a694007.html

[xxiii] “Gabapentin,” Official Information from the United States Food and Drug Administration, Drugs.com, see http://www.drugs.com/gabapentin.html

[xxiv] “Neurontin (Gabapentin),” The Staff of the Mayo Clinic, see http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/drug-information/DR600709

[xxv] Ibid.

[xxvi] Ibid.

[xxvii] “Gabapentin,” Official Information from the United States Food and Drug Administration, Drugs.com, see http://www.drugs.com/gabapentin.html

[xxviii] Saul, Stephanie, “Experts Conclude Pfizer Manipulated Studies,” the New York Times, October 8, 2008.

[xxix] Ibid.

[xxx] Peterson, Melody. “Whistle-Blower Says Marketers Broke the Rules To Push a Drug,” The New York Times, March 14, 2002.

[xxxi] Saul, Stephanie, “Experts Conclude Pfizer Manipulated Studies,” the New York Times, October 8, 2008.

[xxxii] “Pfizer’s Headache,” Newsweek Magazine, October 7, 2008.

[xxxiii] Winstein, K. J.  “Suit alleges Pfizer spun unfavorable drug studies.” Wall Street Journal. October 8, 2008.

[xxxiv] “Pfizer Told to Pay $142.1 Million Over Marketing of Epilepsy Drug,” New York Times, January 28, 2011.

[xxxv] Saul, Stephanie, “Experts Conclude Pfizer Manipulated Studies,” the New York Times, October 8, 2008.

[xxxvi] “U.S. Pharmaceutical Sales  2013,” The United States Food and Drug Administration, see http://www.drugs.com/stats/top100/2013/q1/sales

[xxxvii] “Neurontin,” the RX List, see http://www.rxlist.com/neurontin-drug.htm

[xxxviii] “Neurontin (Gabapentin),” The Staff of the Mayo Clinic, see http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/drug-information/DR600709

[xxxix]Ibid.

[xl] “Neurontin,” the RX List, see http://www.rxlist.com/neurontin-drug.htm

[xli] “Gabapentin,” Medline, Information from the National Institutes of Health, see http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a694007.html

[xlii] Tran, K. T., Hranicky, D., Lark, T., & Jacob, N. J. (2005). Gabapentin withdrawal syndrome in the presence of a taper. Bipolar Disorders, 7(3), 302-304.

[xliii] Hellwig, T., Hammerquist, R., & Termaat, J. (2010). Withdrawal symptoms after gabapentin discontinuation. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 67(11), 910-912.

[xliv] Finch, C., Eason, J., & Usery, J. (2010). Gabapentin Withdrawal Syndrome in a Post–Liver Transplant Patient. Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, 24(3), 236-238.

[xlv] “Neurontin,” the RX List, see http://www.rxlist.com/neurontin-drug.htm

[xlvi] Ibid.

[xlvii] Tran, K. T., Hranicky, D., Lark, T., & Jacob, N. J. (2005). Gabapentin withdrawal syndrome in the presence of a taper. Bipolar Disorders, 7(3), 302-304.

Original Article

What You Never Knew About These Drugs

pills

The nature of the human beast is to explore and experiment. So, growing up most of us are taught that drugs can and will do many scary things to the human brain and body. We have all seen that these effects can be blown out of proportion, making it seem like a few tokes at a party can send you spiralling into addiction,  and then leading to a life of crime. The drugs listed below are worse than anything you were ever warned about. These drugs can and will fuck your life up beyond repair. Anybody that has been around me a bit knows that I don’t judge what a person does in their life. Well, that is not exactly true, if you are fucktard I will judge you. So let’s look at ten (10) really fucked up drugs and explore why you may not want to have them enter your body by any means.

Zolpidem

  • A drug with potential side effects like sleep-walking, sleep-driving and occasionally sleep-spewing.
  • Zolpidem, more commonly known as “Ambien” is a sleeping pill that was developed as an alternative to Valium. And most of the time, it works pretty well. You can take one, fall asleep, and then wake up in the morning without further incident.
  • For some people though, Zolpidem can cause people to do all kinds of crazy shit while asleep. There are many cases of people on Zolpidem crashing cars and claiming to be asleep, and that’s just the warm up.
  • Do a little research about all the side effects which are being hidden from the public but are public record.

Scopolamines

  • The drug criminals blow into your face.
  • Scopolamines ability to cause amnesia suggestibility has been exploited by Colombian criminals.
  • Criminals in Colombia have been blowing powder into the faces of victims, who then happily empty their bank accounts or assist in the robbing of their own house. The morning after, the victim has no idea what has happened.
  • Scopolamine is a drug that causes amnesia and suggestibility. The really scary thing about this drug is how easy it is to administer.
  • There have been rumors of people being drugged in the United States through touching business cards soaked in scopolamine.

Nutmeg

  • Despite a wholesome reputation, is in fact a hallucinogenic.
  • The same stuff that’s probably sitting in your kitchen cupboard right now is one hell of a crazy drug.
  • High doses of nutmeg can induce hallucinations; which has led many people strapped for cash or wanting a legal alternative to the more famous hallucinogens to throw back massive doses of a kitchen spice.
  • These trips are normally unpleasant and more closely resemble psychotic detachment from reality as opposed to the psychedelic sixties.
  • Accompanying the hallucinations is severe anxiety, and a sense of impending doom.
  • The physical effects are also pretty harsh with rapid heart rate and palpitations, dry mouth, nausea and urinary retention all being reported.

Human Growth Hormone (HGH)

  • Human growth hormone or HGH is, as you would expect, a hormone found in humans that is necessary for growth.
  • Athletes have been known to inject HGH because they believe it will help with recovery after training.
  • There can be some very nasty side effects. The most intense one is a condition called acromegaly.
  • Acromegaly causes skin to get thicker, the hands and feet to swell and the jaw line to become more pronounced causing gaps between the teeth.
  • The early days of HGH use were even scarier, as it was sourced from dead bodies.
  • This practice led to many cases of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, a brain disorder similar to mad cow disease.

Bromo-Dragonfly

  • Acts like a super-charged version of LSD, with trips lasting up to 3 days.
  • Bromo-dragonfly is a drug that is named because its molecular structure looks like a dragonfly.
  • Bromo-dragonfly is sometimes sold as LSD, because it’s active at low enough doses to be put on a tab.
  • While an LSD trip usually lasts a few hours, Bromo-dragonfly can be active for up to 3 days, and can have a range of nasty side effects.
  • These include seizures, spasms in your veins and blood vessel constriction. Amputation of limbs is required in severe cases.
  • The trips have been described as being “dragged to hell and back again”.

Rimonadant

  • Rimonadant, the anti-pot, can cure munchies but cause depression.
  • Getting the munchies is one of the most well known symptoms of marijuana smoking. Scientists figured that if they made a drug that had the opposite effect on the body, they could make people less hungry.
  • Rimonabant was born, a drug that works in the same places in the brain as cannabis but has exactly the opposite effect.
  • This strategy worked and the drug was approved for weight loss. Rimonabant was also found to have opposite effects to weed in other areas too. It increases sperm motility, and improves short-term memory in animals.
  • Rimonabant has the opposite effect of pot and was withdrawn from the market pretty quickly after it was revealed it was making people depressed and suicidal.

Etorphine

  • This “Super-Heroin” is 5000 times stronger than heroin, and can overdose a human simply through skin contact.
  • Heroin has caused untold levels of despair, suffering and bad PSAs. So you might be surprised to learn that scientists sat down and developed a drug 5000 times as strong.
  • Etorphine is a drug that works in the same way as heroin and morphine, but never really took off on the streets because it’s too potent to do anything besides instantly kill humans.
  • Its only use is to sedate large animals, and 1/100th of a gram can knock out a 6614 lb. elephant.
  • Contact with skin can be enough to cause an overdose in humans, so whenever the drug is used an assistant with an antidote has to be ready to Pulp Fiction you in case of an accident.

2,4-Dinitrophenol or DNP

  • DNP burns fat in humans so well, it raised body temperatures and cooks the user from the inside.
  • 2,4-Dinitrophenol or DNP is a drug that screws up the way your body uses energy.
  • Normally the food you eat is turned into energy to keep your heart beating and let your muscles move and if you eat too much energy, the excess is stored as fat.
  • DNP is a drug that was used for weight loss in the 1930s, because it totally screwed with the way your body used energy so that energy is used up without any effort on your part.
  • While this may sound like the best invention ever, there’s a drawback. The drug was discontinued in 1938 because people were literally cooking from the inside, with massively raised body temperature, heart rate and sweating that was often fatal.
  • Amazingly, the drug is available through online pharmacies and people are still taking it, and it’s still killing them.

Dimethylheptylpyran “DMHP”

  • Dimethylheptylpyran, the super powerful synthetic marijuana.
  • Dimethylheptylpyran is a US military designed marijuana so potent that a 1mg dose can leave soldiers unable to perform their duties for up to 3 days.
  • From the 1950s to the 1970s the US military had a fun little side project at the Edgewood Arsenal. They would give soldiers various drugs and chemical agents to see what happened. One of these was a super potent version of marijuana called ‘dimethylheptylpyran’ or DMHP.
  • However, rather than a couple of joints, 0.0002 g is all the DMHP the person needed.
  • At 1mg doses soldiers were completely unable to perform their duties for up to 3 days.
  • The fucktards over at Edgewood thought they had stumbled across the ideal non-lethal incapacitating agent. One could just spray the enemy base with DMHP and walk in an hour later with no resistance.
  • By the late 1970s more effective chemical warfare agents had been weaponized, and the research was stopped.

Krokodil

  • Krokodil is a cheaply produced drug that has similar effects to heroin, but with side effects that include literally eating away at the flesh of the user.
  • A series of reactions with over the counter painkillers and easily available chemicals can create a drug called desomorphine that has similar effects to heroin.
  • Cooking up painkillers, lighter fluid, and cleaning oils in a kitchen doesn’t result in a pure product. A brown gunk called Krokodil is produced.
  • The mixture was named for its tendency to turn the skin of users scaly and reptilian as the toxic by-products eat away at the flesh. Heavy use leaves flesh grey and dead, sometimes rotting away to the bone.

Okay boys, girls, and the usual fucktard, this information was not provided so y’all could increase your stash it was done to increase your repertoire of knowledge. I know, since I am not stupid (all the time), that there are those of you who are thinking it is pretty cool that all of these fabulous drugs can still be found on the market today. This should not be the time that y’all take an opportunity to call your hook up to see if they can get you things off of your new shopping list. In my twisted way this is to serve as an educational tool and provide a little humor on behalf of all the dumb bastards that had to show society that they are indeed not super-human. As much as I enjoyed reading all about these drugs and as much as I enjoyed writing about them, there comes a time when a post has to come to an end. This is that time. Now, go find something useful to do with yourselves, just keep your hands on top of the table where everyone can see them because I know where some of your minds go sometimes.